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  • Welcome to Agricultural Society of Nigeria

    The Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) is one of the oldest agriculturally based Societies established in 1962 by the pioneer staff of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The objects of the Society among others are to foster the pursuit and understanding of both basic and applied agricultural science in Nigeria, to disseminate agricultural knowledge by various publications including a Journal of Agriculture, and the organization of agricultural shows, symposia, seminars, lectures, conferences, etc; to promote the interest of agricultural scientists, farmers and all those connected with the agriculture industry, and to be in close collaboration with societies having related objects both in Nigeria and other parts of the world.

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The industrial processing of cassava in Nigeria holds much potential for successful investment.  The crop is increasingly attracting attention and processing businesses are slowly starting to spring-up all over the country. You also know how useful cassava is to Nigerians in general in terms of consumption. Cassava forms the major part of our daily food. Almost no family can survive  a whole year without cassava related food.

Cassava can be processed into a number of products such as starch, flour, chips, ethanol and glucose syrup, and bread to name a few. These products are all in high demand locally and also have significant export possibilities. These therefore, place a lot of raw cash in the hands of anyone who has the product.

As a smart person, you should be thinking about how to take advantage of government support for agriculture and the increased budget to make wealth for yourself. If you are ready, here are what you need to farm cassava.

Cassava Production

Site selection 

For Cassava plantation, it is important to choose an accessible well-drained fertile soil.

Varieties

For good cassava production, the following varieties are recommended for their high yield and processing quality: TMS 30572, NR 8082, NR8083, TMS 4(2) 1425, TMS 81/00110, TMS 92/0326. An additional 10 varieties are in the process of being released. Check from the cassava production specialists in Ibadan. Culled from http://www.wealthresult.com/2013/08/how-to-produce-cassava-in-nigeria.html read more

GARRI is processed from freshly harvested cassava tubers. A fermented, gelatinous flour, it 
is the number one staple carbohydrate food item in Nigeria and in some other countries of 
Africa. Garri can be exported to earn foreign exchange most especially in those countries 
where the concentration of African ethnic blacks is very high e.g. the USA, European Union 
etc. Nigeria’s population is exploding and this has positive effects on the demand for most 
staple foods especially garri. Although garri can be chewed raw and swallowed it finds its 
greatest use when soaked in hot water, pounded or turned and afterwards eaten with any of 
the various types of nourishing soups often prepared for the purpose.
Garri Market: Nigeria, with the output of not less than 40 million metric tonnes (MT) per 
annum of cassava tubers is the world’s largest producer. But despite this, Nigeria is not 
even mentioned as one of the exporters of processed cassava products. The simple reason is 
that most of its cassava roots output is consumed locally. This is done directly by 
processors of cassava chips, pellets, flour, starch, glucose, adhesives etc and indirectly 
by textile, pharmaceutical, food etc industries. There’s therefore a large and continuous 
demand not only for cassava tubers but also its derivatives.
Despite its domestic production, garri prices are not in any way coming down. The high 
prices are attributable to high demand for garri as a result of increasing population, 
general inflation in the country, export of the product and the vagaries of weather. The 
last factor directly affects the output of cassava tubers in the year. In spite of all these 
and other inhibiting factors, the demand for garri keeps rising in our homes and eateries of 
all sorts. Because of our rapidly expanding population, urban and industrial centres, anyone 
who goes into the commercial production of garri especially now that the various tiers of 
government are laying greater emphasis on agriculture than was the case in the past (with 
cassava as the arrowhead), will make a lot of money for himself. This is because with the 
governments’ food security initiative and the unrelenting drive for the provision of agric-
based raw materials, cassava tubers will be abundantly available for processing garri and 
other cassava products.
In addition, the investor can be sure of a steadily rising demand in the local market. Garri 
has great export potential when sold in a better organised and packaged manner and greater 
volume than is being done presently whereby small quantities are packaged and sent overseas 
to some of the Africans there that are hungry to taste home food products. Available 
evidence points to the fact that many of them will readily pay for this and other ethnic 
food items they can lay their hands on.
Raw Materials: The main raw material for garri processing is the cassava tubers. Cassava has 
been a major food crop in Nigeria for over a century. It has many varieties and these are 
grouped into two types (bitter and sweet) for economic convenience. The fresh bitter types, 
which contain hydrocyanic acid, are processed into garri, chips, pellets etc. These are 100% 
locally available in all of the 36 states of the country. A feedback from many parts of the 
county indicate signs of on-coming abundance of cassava harvest resulting from the 
cultivation done in the last two years. For more information on this and every aspect of 
cassava, ask for this writer’s hold-me-by-the-hand, step-by-step guidebook entitled The 
Untapped Investment Opportunities In Cassava Cultivation, Processing And Exporting.
Availability and continued supply of cassava tubers are very crucial for the success of a 
garri-processing venture. For this reason any serious-minded investor is advised to put in 
place a mechanism to ensure these by incorporating into the project the establishment of his 
own cassava farm no matter how small it is. He can also get into forward purchase contract 
with small holders to grow for him.  Because harvested cassava does not store well for long 
after their harvest, the project of necessity has to be located near the supply source of 
cassava tubers in order to avoid their deterioration and hence the quality and quantity of 
the processed garri. Also this will help reduce the cost of transportation and this will 
directly affect the profit margin of the project at the year-end.
Machinery And Equipment: The village method of manually processing garri is considered 
relatively unhygienic, crude, un-economic, time-consuming, tedious, unduly labour-intensive 
and incapable of producing enough from the available tubers to feed the teeming population 
and for export. For these reasons, the plant being contemplated here is a radical departure 
from the traditional method. It is mechanical and utilises the machinery and equipment 
fabricated and tested locally to be functioning effectively and efficiently. Fortunately, 
there are many good fabricators that can give the investor plants of any desired capacity. 
For a comprehensive list of these, you can order for a copy of The Directory Of Industrial 

Machinery Fabricators And Suppliers In Nigeria

Culled from http://startyourbizng.blogspot.com/2012/07/making-garri-1.html. read more

National Policy on Fertilizer for Nigeria represents the first attempt to synthesize the disparate policies of the Federal Government on fertilizer into a single coherent whole. Of course, this does not imply that Nigeria never had a fertilizer policy up to this time. Rather, the policy on fertilizer has existed in bits and pieces inside the grey literature such as government files and disparate statements over the time. As such the inherent interrelationships among the different aspects or policy directions are not obvious thereby restricting the value for decision making and referencing by stakeholders. Thus the basis of the present exercise is to produce a comprehensive document on the national fertilizer policy for the country, with a view to consolidating the position of the Federal Government into a single internally consistent whole and show the interrelationships among the different policy instruments employed. Since the establishment of a ministry for agriculture at the federal level in 1967 followed by the creation of the first professional department in the ministry in 1970 (Federal Department of Agriculture, FDA), the promotion of fertilizer and other green revolution technologies has become a deliberate government policy.

The institutional policy on fertilizer involved the subsequent establishment of the erstwhile Fertilizer Procurement and Distribution Division (FPDD), which was established in the FDA in an effort to coordinate the activities of the States in the importation of fertilizer. For many years, FPDD served as the central agency for fertilizer importation and for the delivery to designated points in the country, until liberalization of the sub-sector began in 1995 following which the division was re-designated as Federal Fertilizer Department in 2001. During this period (1976-1995), the main statute in force was the National Fertilizer Board Act of 1977 which provided for the establishment of “a body corporate to be charged with the responsibility for purchasing and distributing fertilizer to State Governments at such subsidized prices as may be determined by the Federal Government”. In addition, we also have the Fertilizer (Control) Decree of 1992 which has provisions to punish any person who, without permission of the appropriate authority, deals in, sells or distributes fertilizer in a place not designated for the purpose of sale or distribution of fertilizer. The production policy became operational in the early 1970s, when the Federal Government established the Federal Superphosphate Fertilizer Company (FSFC) at Kaduna (1973) as the first manufacturing company of phosphatic products, which became operational in 1976. Afterwards the National Fertilizer Company (NAFCON) was also established in 1981 but started production in 1987, for the manufacture of nitrogenous compounds for domestic use and for exports. In addition, the first in the series of local blending plants were established at Kaduna, Minna, and Kano, which grew in number and capacity. Also, their added value was in terms of producing different formulations to broaden the range of products suitable for application in different areas and for different crops. Lately both FSFC and NAFCON were privatized under the continuing reform policy of the Federal Government.

The traditional fertilizer price policy involved the administratively fixed fertilizer price with heavy subsidy. At all times uniform official price for the same products prevailed all over the i country regardless of the differences in landing costs and market forces at different locations and agro-ecological zones. The subsidy provision covers several components of the price including portions of the CIF of imported products and mark-ups of locally produced products, as well as the whole of distribution cost comprising haulage, warehousing and handling. The value of subsidy at its peak in 1992 was estimated at N6.8 billion. The subsidy policy was associated with several problems, namely: massive abuse in terms of diversion of benefits to unintended beneficiaries; smuggling of products to neighboring countries; fiscal burden on the government; among others. This led to the gradual reduction of subsidy to the current 25% level administered to the quantity of fertilizer purchased by government, under the present market stabilization policy. Work on fertilizers forms part of the responsibility of the agricultural faculties and universities, and research the commodity research institutes. For example, the Nationally Coordinated Fertilizer Research Project was mounted for the conduct of practical field research on fertilizer in all zones.

The Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, serves as the mandate institution for this research. Also, fertilizer extension forms part of the general extension programme of the government, which has the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) as the focal points for delivery services. Each agricultural research institute operates an extension unit which undertakes on-station and on-farm adaptive research in collaboration with ADPs. The training and visit extension method (T&V) was nationally adopted wherein the extension packages, comprising fertilizer and other elements to be disseminated, are subjected to the monthly technology review meetings (MTRM) prior to delivery to farmers during the fortnightly visits of the extension agents. The mandate institution for this purpose is the National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS). The Federal Government performs a regulatory function operates in the fertilizer sector through the National Fertilizer Technical Committee (NFTC) which acts as an advisory body of experts for constantly reviewing and recommending formulations to farmers as well as new products based on result of agronomic trials. In this regard the National Fertilizer Development Centre (NFDC) was established to undertake laboratory analysis of fertilizer products and formulations. The establishment of a regulatory system for fertilizer is presently under consideration in view of the limited attention paid by existing mandate regulatory bodies such as the Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) and the National Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC). By and large, these disparate policy statements and actions have not been properly articulated into a single internally consistent document for quick reference by stakeholders, including the government itself. As such it is not easy to relate policy actions in the subsector to one another and take effective decisions. Hence the need to synthesize the existing policies together in such a manner that reference and decision making becomes more convenient and the actions of stakeholders can be facilitated. Articulating a fertilizer policy is both consistent with and required by the the overall agricultural development policy of Nigeria. Under this policy support is being given the s ubsector in view of the sensitive and significant nature of the input in the agricultural sector

 

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 Agriculture (including hunting, forestry and fishing) contributed an estimated 32% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1998 to the Nigerian economy. An estimated 35.2% of the labour force was employed in the sector in that year. The principal cash crops are cocoa (which accounted for only 0.7% of total merchandise exports in 1995), rubber and oil palm. Staple foods include rice, maize, taro, yams, cassava, sorghum and millet. Timber production, the raising of livestock (principally goats, sheep, cattle and poultry), and artisanal fisheries are also important. According to World Bank estimates, agricultural GDP increased at an annual rate of 2.9% in 1990-98.
The sector remains the largest contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for over 38% of the non-oil foreign exchange earnings, and employing about 70% of the active labour force of the population. Although, the sector has suffered much neglect by the Federal Government since the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantity in 1958, but its importance cannot be over emphasised in the Nigerian economy.
Brief History
The agricultural history of Nigeria is intertwined with its political history. This can be assessed from the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. Before the British conquest the pre-colonial society strived on agriculture as the main stay of the traditional economy. The period of the colonial administration in Nigeria, 1861 – 1960, was punctuated by rather ad hoc attention to agricultural development. During the era, considerable emphasis was placed on research and extension services. But of importance to the writer is the post-colonial period.
The 1962-1968 development plan was Nigeria’s first national plan. Among several objectives, it emphasised the introduction of more modern agricultural methods through farm settlements, co-operative (nucleus) plantations, supply of improved farm implements (e.g. hydraulic hand presses for oil palm processing) and a greatly expanded agricultural extension service.
Some of the specialised development schemes initiated or implemented during this period included:
Farm Settlement Schemes; and
National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP), launched in 1972.
There were also a number of agricultural development intervention experiments, notably
Operation Feed the Nation, launched in 1976;
River Basin and Rural Development Authorities, established in 1976;
Green Revolution Programme, inaugurated in 1980; and
The World Bank-funded Agricultural Development Projects (ADP).
While each of the above programmes sought to improve food production, the ADPs represented the major practical demonstration of the integrated approach to agricultural development in Nigeria.
In spite of the growing importance of oil, Nigeria has remained essentially an agrarian economy, with agriculture still accounting for significant shares in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total exports as well as employing the bulk of the labour force. Available data show that at independence in 1960 the contribution of agriculture to the GDP was about 60%, which is typical for developing agrarian nations. However, this share declined over time to only about 25% between 1975 and 1979, this was due partly to the phenomenal growth of the mining and manufacturing sectors during the period and partly as a result of the disincentives created by the macroeconomic environment.
Similarly, the growth rate of agricultural production exhibited a downward trend during the period. Thus, between 1970 and 1982, agricultural production stagnated at less than one percent annual growth rate, at a time when the population growth was between 2.5 to 3.0 per cent per annum. There was a sharp decline in export crop production, while food production increased only marginally. Thus, domestic food supply had to be augmented through large imports. The food import bill rose from a mere N112.88 million Naira annually during 1970-74 to N1, 964.8 million Naira in 1991.
The years since the early 1960s have also witnessed the establishment of several agricultural research institutes and their extension research liaison services. Some of the major institutions are:
1. Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Service (AERLS) at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria established in 1963;
2. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), at Ibadan and;
3. International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA).
Nigeria’s Agricultural Land Area
Nigeria’s total land area is 92.4million hectares. Of this area 91 million hectares is adjudged to be suitable for cultivation. Approximately half of this cultivable land is effectively under permanent and arable crops, while the rest is covered by forest wood land, permanent pasture and built up areas. Among the States which have the most abundant land areas are Niger (7.6 million hectares) and Borno (2.8 million hectares). See table at: Agriculture dataNigeria's Crops
In 1996, a total of 33 million hectares were cultivated to crops generally; out of which 17.7 million hectares were for staples and 4.9 million hectares were for industrial crops.
Agriculture crops in Nigeria are grouped into the following:
· Cereals (guinea corn "Sorghum spp", millet, maize "Zea mays" and rice "Oryza sativa")
· Root and tuber crops (cassava "Manihot esculenta", yam "Dioscorea spp", cocoyam, and potatoes (sweet and irish))
· Grains legumes and other legumes (cowpeas "Vigna unguiculata", locust bean "Parkia clappertoniana", soyabean "Glycine max" and other beans such as groundnut "Arachis hypogeae", pigeon pea "Cajanus cajan", bambara nuts "Voandzeia subterranean")
· Oil seeds and nuts (melon "Cococynthys citrullus", benniseed "Sesannum orientae or S indicum", kolanut "Cola nitida or C. acuminata", coffee "Coffee Arabic")
· Tree crops, and (cocoa "Theobroma cacao", oil palm "Elaeis guineensis" and rubber "Hevea brasiliensis")
· Vegetables and fruits (vegetables: onions "Allium cepa", African spinach "Amaranthus spp", Indian spinach "Basella rubra", Pumpkin "cucurbita pepo", Sweet pepper "Capsicum annum", Hot pepper "Cinetum africanum", Water leaf "Talinum triangulare", Carrot "Daucus carota" and Lettuce "Lactuaca sativa"; fruits: pineapple "Ananas comosus", Pawpaw "Carica papaya", Mango "Magnifera indica", Banana/plantain "Musa spp", Citrus "Citrus spp" and Guava " psidium guajava")

Nigeria’s Livestock

Culled from http://agriculturepro.blogspot.com/2007/05/nigerias-agriculture-sector.html read more

You can now download proceedings of the 51st Annual Conference 2017 Proceedings held in Abuja. Download in PDF format.

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How to produce cassava
How to produce cassava

The industrial processing of cassava in Nigeria holds much potential for successful investment. ...

Read more...
Producing Garri for export
Producing Garri for export

GARRI is processed from freshly harvested cassava tubers. A fermented, gelatinous flour, it is...

Read more...
National Fertilizer Policy for Nigeria

National Policy on Fertilizer for Nigeria represents the first attempt to synthesize the disparate...

Read more...
Agriculture and Nigeria's economy
Agriculture and Nigeria's economy

 Agriculture (including hunting, forestry and fishing) contributed an estimated 32% of Gross...

Read more...